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【引用】七--九年级新目标英语课本重点复习  

2011-07-04 09:17:07|  分类: 初中英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 Grade Seven (A)

1. What’s her family name? (P5)

●  family name= last name  姓       first name = given name   名

●姓名顺序:

英美人的名在前,姓在后。如:Jim Green中,Jim 是first name/ given name,  Green是family name/ last name;

中国人的姓在前,名在后。

(1)单姓单名:姓与名的首字母分别大写。如:Li Ping

(2 ) 单姓双名:名的双字写在一起,只大写第一个名的首字母。如:Yang Liwei

(3 ) 复姓:把复姓写在一起,只大写第一个字母。如:Zhuge Liang

●family(家庭)、class(班级),作主语,谓语用单数形式。

family(家庭成员)、class(同学们),作主语,谓语用复数形式。

如:My family were eating dinner when uncle Li came in.    I have a family, the family is a happy one.

2. Thanks for the photo of your family. (P 17)

●Thanks = Thank you       Thanks a lot = Thank you very much.= Many thanks.

●Thanks for sth./doing sth.   谢谢你……   Thanks for your help.  Thanks for helping me with my English.          

Thanks to…多亏…,由于…    Thanks to trees and flowers, our school is becoming more and more beautiful.

●a photo of mine  我的一张照片        a photo of me  一张我本人的照片

3. Here is my family photo. ( P17)

●以here, there等副词开头的句子,主谓倒装。(主语为代词时则不倒装)

如:Here comes the bus. Here is your pen.  Here you are.=Here it is.    Not only have I been to Beijing, but also I have been to Taiyuan.

4. Please take these things to your brother. Can you bring some things to school?(P23)

●take:把东西从此处带走。    bring:把东西由别处带来。     fetch/get:去把东西带来(go and bring)       carry:携带,搬运(无方向性)

●some和any都可以修饰可数名词复数和不可数名词。区别如下:

  some用于肯定句中,如果用于疑问句,则表示希望得到肯定的回答或表示诚意。 

any用于否定句、疑问句和条件状语从句,如果用在肯定句则表示“任何一个”的意思。

5. That sounds good.(P27)

●系动词后用形容词作表语。sound/seem/look/become/get/turn/taste/feel/smell/touch+adj.

●sound:声音的总称。         noise:噪音           voice:嗓音

6. Do you like bananas?(P31)

●like sb. to do sth.           like sb. not to do sth.       以此类推:want,tell,teach,ask,

●like doing sth.:一贯性喜欢做某事,经常性喜欢做某事         like to do sth.  具体某一次喜欢做某事

●like v.  喜欢      prep.介词   像……一样

7. How much is this T-shirt? (P41)

●How much is/are……? ……多少钱?  It’s/They’re……

●How much 修饰不可数名词;How many 修饰可数名词复数    它们都是“多少”的意思。

8. Can I help you? (P43)

售货员招呼顾客:Can I help you?=What can I do for you?=May I help you?

顾客告诉售货员:Yes, please. I want to buy…/I’m looking for…/I’d like to buy…        或者:No, thanks. I only have a look.

询问顾客想买东西的特征:What color/size/kind do you want?

向顾客推荐商品:What/How about this one?    This one is cheap and nice.

顾客询问价格:How much is/are…?  How much does it cost?   What’s the price of it?

买卖达成:I’ll take/have/buy/get it.

9. When is your birthday? How old are you?(P49)

询问年龄:How old are you?   What’s your age?

回答年龄:主语+be+数词 (+years old)

●He is an eight-year-old boy.= He is eight years old.

●how old, how often, how soon, how far, how long, how many, how much, how many times,

10. I want to see an action movie. (P53)

●want sth.    want to do sth.     want sb. to do sth.     want sb. not to do sth.

●look:发生看的动作     look at…  看……         see:看见没有的结果

  listen:发生听的动作    listen to… 听……          hear:听见没有的结果

  watch: 强调观看运动着的事物或影像。如:看电视,看比赛,看电影,看表演等

  read: 阅读,朗读    如:看书,看报,看信,看杂志,看地图

11. Can you play the guitar? (P 59)

●can, may, must, need是情态动词,后面必须跟动词原形一起构成谓语。

●play the + 乐器          play +球/棋/牌类

12.What a funny time to eat breakfast! (P67)

感叹句:

How + adj./adv. (+ 主语+谓语)!   如:How hard he works!

What a/an + adj. +名词单数(+ 主语+谓语)!  What + adj. +名词复数(+ 主语+谓语)!  What + adj. +不可数名词(+ 主语+谓语)!

如:What bad weather/music/news/water/advice it is!

单词归类记忆:

乐器:guitar, drum, piano, trumpet, violin

球类:football, soccer, basketball, volleyball, baseball, tennis, ping-pong

星期:Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday

月份:January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December

电影:action movie, comedy, documentary, thriller, Beijing Opera, cartoon

Grade Seven( B)

1. She’s from Japan. (P1)

●be from= come from

●国家—人—语言

China—Chinese—Chinese           America—American—English        England—Englishman—English   Canada—Canadian—English

Germany—German—German         France—Frenchman—French        Italy—Italian—Italian            India—Indian—Indian

2. My favorite subject in school is P.E. It’s fun.(P5)

●one’s favorite……

●V+doing

have fun, be busy, can’t help, give up, look forward to, be/get used to, feel like, have trouble/problem/difficult/ a hard time, pay attention to, be worth, keep on, put off, end up, mind, finish, keep, practice, enjoy, permit, spend, keep, continue, consider, suggest, can’t help, miss + doing sth

3. The pay phone is across from the library.(P8)

●across from= be opposite to 在…的对面

●询问方向:

Where’s the nearest…?            Which is the way to…?         How can I get to the …?            Is there a … near here?

Can you tell me the way to the …?  I don’t know/ I want to know/ Could you tell me where …is?

●指点方向:

Go/Walk along/across this road/street.    Take the first/second/third turning on the left/right.   It’s about…kilometers form here.

The …is along the road on the right.     It’s over there on the right.                      It’s quite far from here.

4. What does she do?(P19)

现在的职业:What does sb. do?         What am/is/are sb?       What’s sb’s job?

将来的工作:What does sb. want to be?   Sb. wants to be…

5. How’s the weather in Beijing? It’s sunny.(P31)

●How is the weather today?= What’s the weather like today?

●sun—sunny   wind—windy   cloud—cloudy   snow—snowy    rain—rainy    fog—foggy

6. Hi, Alice? This is Bob.( P33)

打电话给某人:May/Can/Could I speak to…?     I’d like to speak to…

询问对方是谁:Is that…(speaking)?    Who’s that?   Who’s calling/speaking, please?

自我介绍:This is …(speaking)。   …is speaking.    Hello, …here.

转告某人接电话:You’re wanted on the phone.     There’s a call/phone for you.    Someone wants you on the phone.

转告的人就在身边:It’s for you.或For you.

请对方稍等:Hold on (the line), please.   Hold on for a moment.    Don’t hang up, please.

7. She never stops talking.(P43)

●对频率提问,用How often.   ( never, ever, sometimes, often, usually, once , twice, three times a day, hardly, hardly ever )

●stop to do sth.停止现在的事,去做另一件事。      stop doing sth.  停止做某事

8. It was time to go home. (P58)

It’s time to do sth.       It’s time for sb. to do sth.      It’s time for sth.

9. I found a little boy crying in the corner.(P63)

●感官动词:不论感官动词是动词的什么形式,其后只有两种形式。

(1)see/watch/hear/notice/find sb. do sth.      ……某人做了某事 (全过程)

(2)see/watch/hear/notice/find sb. doing sth.   ……某人正在做某事 (正在进行)

●in the corner  在一角/角落里        at the corner  在拐角处

10. That made me feel very happy.(P63)

●make/let/stay/keep sb. + adj.            

●make/let sb. do sth.       在被动语态中,省略的to要还原。

●make sb. sth. = make sth. for sb.  为某人做……

●make oneself done 让某人被……

11. Don’t arrive late for class.(P71)

●be late       be late for

●arrive in + 大地方      arrive at + 小地方      get to + 地方      reach + 地方        

注意:home, here, there, upstairs, downstairs, abroad 是副词,他们前面的介词要去掉。

Grade Eight (A)

1. What’s the matter with you? I have a sore throat.( P7)

●What’s the matter= What’s the trouble?=What’s wrong?=What’s up?

●There’s something wrong with…

●have a sore throat, have a sore back, have a sore leg

●have a cough, have a cold, have a fever, have a toothache, have a stomachache have a headache

2. It’s easy to have a healthy lifestyle, and it’s important to eat a balanced diet.

It’s + adj. + to do sth.  做某事……

3. How do you get to school? I usually walk ,but sometimes I take the bus.(P20)

回答交通方式时,常用下列形式:

take + 限定词+ 交通工具+ to + 某地                     go/get to + 某地 + by + 交通工具单数       

go/get to + 某地 +  in/on + 限定词+ 交通工具            walk/ride/drive/fly  to + 某地

如: We take a bus to school.    He goes to work by bike.     His mother drives him to school.       I go to school in my father’s car.   

go to … by bus/ship/boat/car/train/subway= take a bus/ship/boat/car/train/subway to…

go to … on foot = walk to …              go to … by plane/air = fly to …

go to … on the bus/bike                 go to … in the car

4. It’s takes about 25 minutes to walk and 10 minutes by bus.(P21)

●It takes sb. some time to do sth.

●Sb. spend… on sth./(in) doing sth.         Sb. pay…for sth.

●Sth. cost …

5. Liu Ying is not as good at sports as her sister.(P33)

●be good at= do well in    擅长….

be good for           对…..有好处。

be good to = be friendly to    对…..很友善。

be good with sb. 和…相处融洽

● as + 原级 + as       和…一样        not as/so+ 原级 + as     和…不一样

6. I am a little taller than her. (P33)

● a little = a bit =a little bit= kind of  有点儿

● a kind of…  一种…      all kinds of…   各种各样的…       different kinds of…   不同种类的…      be kind   和蔼的

●能放在形容词比较级的前面,表示程度的词有:much, a little, a lot, even, far

●不能放在形容词比较级前的词有:quite, very, too, rather

7. Turn on the blender. (P 41)

● turn on, turn off, turn up, turn down

● 祈使句的反义疑问:Will you?   Let’s …,shall we?   Let us…, will you?

●祈使句的否定句:在句首加 Don’t即可。

8. You are never too young to start doing things. (P55)

● too …(for sb.)to… 主语为物时,不定式后不能再带宾语。如:The box is too heavy for me to carry it.(it应该去掉)

●too…to…可用not…enough…或 so… that…来改写。如:

  He is too young to go to school. = He isn’t old enough to go to school. = He is o young that he can’t go to school.

9. in October, 2000, Li Yundi took part in the 14th Chopin International piano Competition in Poland. ( P57)

take part in :指参与群众性活动、会议、竞赛、考试等。 

join: 指参加团体、组织后,成为其中的一员。也可参加某人。

10. He won first prize in his group.(P5)

win: 赢得比赛           lose: 输掉比赛    beat: 打败对手        hit: 打人

11. What are you going to be when you grow up? ( P59)

●将来时的表达:1). be going to + V原      2). will + V原       3). be doing sth.

● when: 当……时; 什么时候

12. I’m going to more something interesting. ( P61)

形容词做定语修饰不定代词时,形容词后置。(something, somebody, somewhere, anything, anything, anywhere, nothing)

13. borrow some money.(P68)

● borrow sth. from sb = borrow sb. sth.  主语借进          lend sth. to sb. = lend sb sth.   主语借出

● 借了多长时间用keep; 买了多久时间用have; 死了多长时间用be dead, 开始了多久用be on

14. About 200 yuan a night is enough.(76)

   enough + n.         adj./adv. + enough

Grade Eight B

1. Do you think there will be robots in people’s home? (P2)

● Do you think 后跟宾语从句。

● There be 句型中不能在出现have/has; There be sth/sb. doing sth.

● 就近原则:There be, Either… or …, Neither…nor …, Not only… but also…,离动词最近的主语决定动词的单复数形式

2.At the weekends, I’ll be able to dress more casually.( P 6)

● be able to 用于任何时态;can 用于一般现在时和过去时态

● dress + 人: 给……穿衣His mother dressed him in new clothes.  表示“穿着”的状态时用:be dressed in + 衣服或颜色。

   dress up as, dress oneself, be/get dressed in + 衣服、颜色

   put on :穿衣的动作        wear : 穿着衣服的状态     be in + 颜色、衣服、帽子等,强调状态

She was dressed in Russian style.   Put on more clothes, or you’ll be cold.    Mary is wearing a yellow dress today.  

He is wearing a sweater.          Whose that man in a red coat over there?

3. They might find it difficult to plan things for themselves. (P16)

● Sb. find/think/feel it adj. for sb. to do sth.

● plan—planned—planning      babysit —babysat—babysitting

4. What was the girl doing when the UFO took off? (P19)

take off :  (脱下;飞机/小鸟起飞;事业/经济的腾飞,迅速发展)

take+ 时间+off   休假……

5. Lana said she wasn’t mad at Marcia anymore.(P27)

● anymore = any more     not … any longer = no longer(谓语用延续性动词)   not…any more = no more

● be/get mad at sb. = be/get angry with sb.   生某人的气         be mad about…  对……狂热的

6. If you go to the party, you’ll have a great time.( P34)

● if :在条件状语中是“如果”的意思,在宾语从句中是“是否”的意思。I don’t know if he will come back, if he comes back, please call me .

● 在状语从句中(由when, after, if, until, unless, as soon as等引导),主句是下列情况之一,从句用一般现在时表示将来的意思:主句有情态动词;主句是祈使句;主句是将来时)

7. If you are famous, people will watch you all the time and follow you everywhere.(P38)

● famous = well-known

● be famous for  因……而出名   (跟出名的原因)      be famous as   以……而出名  (跟职业/身份/地位)

● all the time  总是,一直      all the same  仍然、还是

8. Thanks for sending me the snow globe of the monster. (P48)

send sb. sth. = send sth. to sb.     give sb. sth.=give sth. to sb   pass sb. sth=pass sth. to sb.    offer sb. sth.=offer sth. to sb.

lend sb. sth. = lend sth. to sb      borrow sb. sth.=borrow sth. to sb.      buy sb. sth.=buy sth. for sb.

当直接宾语是代词时,只能放在间接宾语的前面。如:pass it to me      buy them for her

9. By the way, what’s your hobby?(P48)

by the way顺便说一下    in the way妨碍、挡路   on the way在途中    in this way  以这种方式

10. The more I learn about Chinese history, the more I enjoy living in China.(P50)

● The + 比较级,the + 比较级     越……, 就越……

● 比较级 +and + 比较级 ; more and more + 原级(能加more的形容词)   越来越……

11. For example, dropping litter is almost newer allowed.

● 例如: for example, ……       such as……

●动名词/不定式做主语,谓语用三单形式。

allow sb to do sth.        be allowed to do sth.

12. Why don’t you get her a scarf? ( P60 )

●提建议:

  Why don’t you + V原?        Why not + V原?   You should + V原.      You’d better + V原.

Let’s + V原.                 How about +Ving?   What about+Ving?

13. People don’t need to spend too much money. Instead, making a meal is enough.(P65)

● Sb. need to do sth. (主语为人)      Sth. need doing sth.(主语为物)

● need: 情态动词、行为动词

● too much + 不可数名词      too many + 可数名词复数       much too + 形容词

● instead: 代替(放在句尾);然而,相反的(放在居首)      instead of…: 代替…… (放在句中)     

14. Have you ever been to …?(P 68)

   have/has been to   去过,已回来       have/has gone to  去……,未回来     have/has been in    在……

15. Me, neither. ( P 69 )

●甲方怎样,乙方也怎样: So + 谓语+ 主语

●甲方不怎样,乙方也不怎样: Neither/Nor + 谓语+ 主语

●甲方怎样,乙方赞同: So + 主语 + 谓语

●甲方不怎样,乙方赞同: Neither/Nor + 主语 + 谓语 或者:Me, either.

●Neither/Either + 名词单数,谓语用单数

●Neither/Either of + 名词复数,谓语用单数

16. …, more than three quarters of the population are Chinese,…(P74)

●more than = over

●表示人口的“多”用 large/big,表示人口的“少”用small.

●问“人口的多少”时,用“What’s the population of……”

17. I feel like part of the group now. (P80)

想做某事:want to do sth.     would like to do sth.     feel like doing sth.

18.feed sth. to …. = feed …. with sth.  给……喂……       keep + 动物:饲养动物

19.不敢做某事:be afraid to do sth.        担心出现某种后果:be afraid of doing sth. 

如:I’m afraid of falling down from the wall.  I’m afraid to climb the tree.

Grade Nine

1. I study by working with a group.(P2)

by 用法小结:

在……旁边(near)  Will you sit down here by the window?

在……之前   I have to go back by ten o’clock.     By the time I went home, my mom had cooked lunch.

借助于……,用……  I go to school by bus.       I learn English by listening to the radio.

2. deal with (P8)

  How will you deal with this problem?    What will you do with this problem?

3. I used to be afraid of the dark.(P10)

4. used to do sth.  过去常常……         be/get used to doing sth. 习惯于……       be afraid of= be terrified of

5. Sixteen-year-olds should not be allowed to get their ears pierced. (P18)

● sixteen-year-olds = sixteen-year-old teenagers

● get their ears pierced                 get/have sth. done

6. What would you do if you had a million dollars?(P26)

● 具体数字/several + hundred/thousand/million/billion              hundreds/thousands/millions/billions of

● 虚拟语气:  主语+would/should/could + V原 if + 主语+ 过去时态( be动词用were )

7. It must belong to Carla. (P34)

belong to sb.= be sb’s

8. She’s worried because of her test. (P 36)

● because of + 短语       because + 句子(主语+谓语)

● be worried about = worry about   担心……

9. There must be something visiting the homes in our neighborhood.(P38)

● There be …doing sth.    There be 句型中不能再有have/has

● must be   一定

10. I’ll help clean up the city parks. ( P60 )

动词+副词,代词放中间:

cheer up ,set up , put up, fix up, cut up, clean up, give up, pick up, look up, mix up, use up, eat up, give out ,work out ,hang out, hand out, clean out, turn on, turn off, turn down, turn up, take off, put off, put on, give away, put away, think over, look over

11. It’s used for seeing in the dark.(P69)

be used by   被……使用    be used for doing sth. = be used to do sth.   被用来做……         be used as  把……用作……

12. I only just made it to my class. (P78)  我刚好到达教室。

● make it   办成功,做到,赶到       I think we’ll just make it.

● 及时到达;赶上                    The train leaves in five minutes, we’ll never make it!

● 约定(时间)                      As for our next meeting, let’s make it the day after tomorrow.

13. At times an ad can lead you to buy something you don’t need at all.(p106)

● at times = sometimes有时           sometime   某时    some times几次,几倍      some time  一段时间

● lead sb. to do sth.纵容/引诱/引导某人做某事       He led us to his home.   You lead and we’ll follow.

14. I prefer to receive a gift that has some thought behind it.(P108)

prefer to do sth.                prefer to do sth. rather than do sth.           prefer doing  sth. to doing sth.

15. The walls are made from old glass bottles that are glued together.( P 122)

   be made from…… 由……制成(看不出原料)               be made of…… 由……制成(能看出原料)

 注意:take place和 happen 都是表示“发生”的意思,都没有被动语态。它们的区别是:

happen to sb.  某人发生了某事      happen to do sth.  碰巧发生了某事

happen:一切客观事情或情况的偶然或未能预见地发生

take place: 发生事先计划或预想到的事物.(历史上的事件,集会等先布置而后发生或举行的事情,不用于地震等自然现象)

九年级英语上期期末复习(Unit 1-12)

Unit 1

一、He studies by asking the teacher for help

by 以…方式,靠  + n / doing        I went to school by bus /train /subway / bike / plane /boat….

二、the best way to do sth做某事的最好方法

三、Joining the English club was the best way to improve our English.

动名词作主语 + V三单

四、have trouble / problem / difficult / a hard time + doing sth 做某事很困难

五、laugh at sb. 嘲笑某人

六、last (持续) + 一段时间  The rain lasted for 6 hours yesterday.

七、regard …..as …… = consider….as…..= treat …… as…….把…..当成……

八、complain to sb about doing sth抱怨某人做某事

九、except / besides

except 除…以外….    All the students went to the zoo except me

besides 除….以外 (包括在内)   I have few friends besides you.

十、as soon as….一….就…… (条件状语从句, 主将从现)   I’ll call you as soon as I get there.

十一、 if 引导宾语从句时 “是否”  if引导条件状语从句 “假如,如果”,主句为将来时,从句用一般现在时。

       I don’t know if it will rain , if it rains, I won’t go out.

                  宾从        条从

Unit 2

一、1)used to do sth 过去常常做某事  He used to do homework until 10 pm.

2)be used to doing sth 习惯于做某事                      I’m used to getting up early.   She is used to living alone.

3)be used to do sth = be used for doing sth  被用于做某事     Knife is used to cut things = Knife is used for cutting things.

二、afford 买得起,负担得起(…的费用) I can’t afford a new car.        afford to do sth  负担得起做某事

三、get in trouble with 与….发生纠纷                  be patient with sb of sth 在某事上对某人很耐心

四、 be proud of  = take pride in + n  / doing 对…..感到骄傲

五、It ‘s time (for sb) to do sth / It’s time for sth  是(某人)该做某事的时候了

Unit 3

一、be allowed to do sth 被允许做某事       allow sb to do sth  允许某人做某事        allow to do sth  允许做某事

二、(1) instead of + n /pre / ving

She prefers milk instead of (=rather than) coffee.      We’d like to go sightseeing instead of staying at home.

(2) instead 相反的、代替。常放句末。   I don’t like swimming , I like playing games instead.

三、So do we 我也是

So +助、be、情态动词+主语 “某人也一样”        I have to do my homework . So does he .

Nor /neither助、be、情态动词+主语 “某人也不”      Mary didn’t go to the party last night . Neither /nor did I .

四、I’m not allowed to get my ears pierced.

Get sth done / have sth done  这事儿不是主语做的,而是找别人做的。

My bike broke down, I’ll have it repaired. 我的自行车坏了,我得找人修理。

五、be strict with sb  对某人严格       be strict in sth    在某方面很严格

六、be comfortable to do sth做某事很方便

七、be good for 对…..有好处。 Vegetable and fruit are good for your health.

be good at = do well in + n / pre / doing   擅长…. He is good at swimming

be good to = be friendly to 对…..很友善。

八、have an opportunity to do sth   有机会做某事。

九、语法:不定代词

(1) some / any 均为“一些”,+可、不可数名词; some一般用于肯定, any多用于否定或疑问句。 但在疑问句中,当表示说话人希望得到肯定回答或表达请求、建议时应用some.    ---Would you like some coffee ?       ---Yes, please. / No, thanks

(2)many / much

   many +可数名词     much +不可数名词   都可与so, too, as, how 搭配。

(1)     either / neither

either指两者其一   neither 指两者都不

either…..or….. 不是…就是….            neither…..nor…..既不…也不……

十、other , the other , others , the others , another

1)       other 别的、其他的

2)       the other 两者中另一个    one …….., the other……..一个…另一个……

3)       others 泛指别的人或物 =other + 复数名词  some ……, others…..一些…..另一些…..

4)       the others 特指其余剩下的人或物    some….., the others……一些…..,其余的……

5)       another 任何一个, 另一个。(指三者以上中的任何一个)

十一、get in the way of …….妨碍…..

十二、On….team . 在…队里   He is on the school soccer team.

十三、happen 出乎意料的发生      take place 有计划的发生       两者都没有被动语态  this accident has taken place for 5 years.

十四、be serious about + n/ pre / doing   对….很认真

十五、succeed (in) doing sth 成功地做某事    success  n.    successful  adj

Unit 4

一、数词+hundred/thousand/million/billion      几百/千/百万/十亿

hundreds/thousands/millions/billions+ of  成百的/千的/百万的/十亿的

二、辨析 bring / take / fetch / carry

三、If I were you, I’d wear a shirt and tie.             If I had a million dollars, I’d buy a big house.

If 的用法:

1)  在含有非真实条件句的复合句中,表示一种假设,需用虚拟语气,对现在情况的假设,条件从句中用一般过去时(be 动词勇were),主句用 would/should/could + V原

If they were here, they would help you.

2)  如果假设情况可能发生,句子用陈述语气,条件从句用一般现在时,主句用将来时。

If he comes, I’ll bring him a present.         If it rains tomorrow, we won’t have a picnic.

四、invite sb to somewhere.           invite sb to do sth

五、辨析 borrow / lend / keep

borrow …from…. (主语)借进    I borrowed books from school library.

lend…..to ….. (主语)借出       Could you lend your dictionary to me?

keep 借并保存一段时间(常用于完成时for, since与搭配,代替borrow  )    

 I’ve kept this story book for a month , and I didn’t return it .

六、许多。

(2)     a lot of , lots of , some , plenty of 既可修饰可数,也可修饰不可数名词。

(2) a number of + 可数名词复数+V复 “大量的” A number of trees are cut down.

(3) the number of +可数名词复数+V三单 “..的数量” The number of students in our class is 52.

(4) amount of , much , a little , little , a bit of , a deal of + 不可数名词 + V三单

(5) many , a few , few + 可数名词复数+V复

七、(rather) than其后动词的形式,与前面动词的形式保持一致。

I like singing than dancing.

宁愿做…而不愿做…..

1)would rather do sth than do sth.     2)would like to do sth, than do sth    3)prefer to do sth rather than do sth     4)prefer doing to doing

八、害怕做某事

be afraid of doing sth = be terrified of doing sth = be scared of doing sth        be afraid to do sth

九、win 赢得比赛、演讲、地位、荣誉               beat 击败某人、某队

十、辨别

noise噪音    Don’t make any noise !     voice人的嗓音  He has a good voice.    sound  泛指各种声音    The sound of car is too loud.

十一、taste  v.品尝,尝起来   n.味道,品味      系动词 taste , smell , look , sound , feel + adj 

十二、语法。

      Give sb sth = give sth to sb

这种结构的动词还有:(加to的) give, show, send, bring, pass, lend, tell

                        (加for的)make, buy, do, have, cook, find, sing

      Eg: I bought a gift for her. = I bought her a gift          She lent me a book = She lent a book to me.

Unit 5

一、--Whose book is this?    --It must /might / can’t /could  be sb’s

                                                   belong to sb.

二、It’s +adj + that ….    It’s necessary /clear/important ……that….

It’s+adj+ to do sth    it’s important/ necessary to work hard.

find/ think + it +adj + to do sth.     I found it difficult to remember English words.

三、对…感到担心。be anxious/worried about…    worry about

渴望做某事    be anxious to do sth

四、He could be running for exercise.

情态动词+be +doing sth  (表示猜测可能正在做某事)

五、sth happen to sb 某人碰巧遇到某事  When he walked across the road, the car accident happened to him.

六、太….  much too + adj

太多….too much +不可数n      too many + 可数n

Unit 6

一、prefer sth to sth   I prefer fish to meat.

prefer to do sth , rather than do sth. = would rather do sth than do sth          They prefer to stay at home rather than go out.

prefer doing to doing    Jim prefers reading to playing games.

二、play +运动、棋类、消遣 play basketball/soccer/volleyball/tennis/ping-pong/baseball/chess

play+ the +乐器  play the guitar/violin/piano/trumpet/drums

三、go+运动ing : go shopping/ fishing / sightseeing/ cooking

四、aloud  loud  loudly 

aloud 指读书  read aloud.             loud, loudly可互换,但loud可作adj, loudly却不能。

五、使….想起….  提醒(某人)

remind sb

remind sb of sth       The photos reminded me of my school days.

remind sb to do sth     Can you remind me to wake him up at 6:25.

六、though / although 和 but 不能连用

My grandfather is 100 years old , but he is very health.= Though my grandfather is 100 years old, he is very health.

because 和so 也不能连用

七、famous = well-known

be famous for     Martin is famous for writing story.

be famous as      She is famous as a scientist.

be famous to      The Great Wall is famous to the world.

八、a few+可数名词 (表肯定)一些          a little+不可数名词 (表肯定)一些

few            (表否定) 几乎没有     little           (表否定) 几乎没有

九、because + 句子                 because of + 名词、代词、动名词短语

He stopped playing soccer because he had a headache.     He stopped playing soccer because of his headache.

十、expect to do sth. = hope to do sth. = wish to do sth.

十一、have a great time = have fun = enjoy oneself.

Unit 7

一、辨析relaxed / relaxing      tired / tiring             fascinated / fascinating 

excited / exciting       frustrated / frustrating     disappointed /disappointing

surprised /surprising    amazed / amazing         interested / interesting

(加ed的修饰人“感到。。。的”;加ing的修饰物“令人。。。的”)

eg: She was surprised to read this surprising news.

相关短语:be excited at     be disappointed at    be surprised at / to do sth

be interested in = taka an interest in + n / Ving

二、旅行。trek   徒步跋涉  trek trough the jungle/forest/mountain

          travel  泛指旅行  travel around the world.

          trip    短途旅行  have a trip.   Trip to Chengdu.

三、想要、愿意做某事 would like to do sth. = want to do sth.

    ---Where would you like to go ?       ---I’d like to visit somewhere warm.

四、辨析 cross  through  over  past

(1) cross  从表面上通过   walk cross the street/ bridge/ river….

(2) through  从空间通过   go through the forest/ jungle/ crowed…

(3) over    从上方跨过    jump over the wall

(4) past    从旁边经过    He walked past the window when we were having class.

五、hope / wish

(1) hope to do sth.      hope + 从句

(2) wish to do sth.      wish sb. to do sth.       wish + 从句

六、I’d like to go somewhere relaxing.

adj. 放不定代词后修饰不定代词。

七、Why not + V原…..? = Why don’t you + V原….?

     Let’s + V原

八、consider考虑、认为

consider doing sth / +how(what) +to do sth / +名词、从句

   eg: We’re considering visiting Paris for holiday.

      He has never considered how to solve the problem.

      All of you should consider the feeling of the people.

      Do you consider(认为) that we can finish the project on time?

九、one of + adj最高级+复数名词+ V三单      One of the highest sights in Paris is Eiffel Tower.

十、辨析 include / including

Our school includes two parts: Primary and Middle School.

I like all sports including playing soccer.

十一、traveling around Paris by taxi can cost a lot of money.

      traveling around Paris by taxi 动名词做主语+ V三单

      one of the cheapest ways to visit Paris is taking the underground train.

      动名词作表语从句的主语

十二、辨析 cost  spend  pay  take

      Sth. costs(cost)……                   The TV cost me 500 dollars

      Sb. spend (spent) ….. on sth. /doing sth.    I spent 500 dollars on the TV.

                                         I spent 500 dollars buying the TV.

      Sb pay (paid) …. For…                I paid 500 dollars for the TV.

      It takes (took) sb. ….. to do sth.          It took me 500 dollars to buy the TV.

十三、unless = if not

      条件状语从句,由if,  unless 引导。  (主将从现, 主过从过)

      If it doesn’t rain, we’ll go fishing.   Unless you see a doctor, you shouldn’t take the medicine.

十四、提供。

(1)provide sb. with sth. = provide sth. for sb.

He tried to find a job to provide his family with food.   He tried to find a job to provide food for his family.

(2) offer sb. sth = offer sth to sb.  She offered money to the poor children.

   offer to do sth. 自愿做某事

十五、mind, finish, keep, be busy, feel like, practice, have fun, enjoy,

have trouble/problem/difficult/ a hard time, permit, spend, be worth, keep on, keep,

be used to, continue, give up, put off, end up, pay attention to, look forward to,

consider, suggest, can’t help, miss + doing sth

feel, hear, see, find, watch, notice sb do sth (做过)

doing sth (正在做)

十六、辨析 stop to do / stop doing            remember to do / remember doing

           forget to do / forget doing         try to do / try doing

           go on to do / go on doing          allow to do / allow doing

十七、在介词后(in, at, after, on, to, for, of, by, against, with, without, after, before, )如果要用动词,只能用 ving       I study for a test by working with groups.

十八、enough的用法

      adj / adv + enough  足够。。。样      enough + n   足够的。。。

十九、语法:主谓一致。

   1.当and或both …and… 连接两个或三个名词作主语,谓语动词用复数。        Both you and I are good friends.

   2.不定代词作主语+V三单(either, neither, each, the other, another, any/every/no/some引导的不定代词) Everyone is going to beach tomorrow.

   3.由each, every引导的作主语,指同一个人时,+V三单  Each boy and girl was given a gift.

   4.主语后有 with, along with, together with, as well as, more than, including, besides, like, except, but.  谓语动词由前面的主语决定.

    Mr Li with his wife and children is coming next week.       Tom besides his friends plays volleyball every afternoon.

      5.either…or….    neither…nor…   not only…but also…连接两个主语,谓语动词有靠近它的主语决定,即就近原则。

        Not only my parents but also I am looking forward to meeting my uncle.      Either you or he is right.

      6.there be句型的be动词由靠近它的主语决定,即就近原则。    There is a table and many desks in the room.

      7.one of +复数名词+ V三单   one of the women is from America.

二十、dream of doing sth

      achieve/ come true    I believe I will achieve my dream one day.= I believe my dream will come true one day.

二十一、receive / accept

        I’ve received her invitation to the party, but I didn’t accept it, because I’m busy.

二十二、辨析 so that   so….. that….       such…. That…

        1) so that = in order that    he works hard so that he can make more money.

        2) such 修饰强调名词。

       such + a/an + adj + n +that从句 Mary is such a young girl that she can’t go to school.

       such + adj+不可数名词、复数名词+ that从句

        3)so 修饰强调adj或adv.

          so + adj / adv + that从句   He is so clever that he can work out all the problems.

        4)当名词由many, much, few, little修饰时,只能用so

          so many/ few+可数名词复数 +that 从句        so much/ little+不可数名词+that从句

           There are so much time that I can play with friends.

         5) too…to… = not… enough to …. = so….. that….

二十三、短语。

be willing to do sth       be similar to     it seems that…      seem to do sth

hold on to..             according to

二十四、定语从句 (详见Unit 6-7)

        1)一般情况下,that可指人,也可指物,可代替who, whom, which; 但不能和介词搭配。Which指物   who, whom, whose指人   where指某地   when指某时

           A doctor is a person who looks after people’ health.

           I like the places where people are friendly.

        2)掌握that的几种特殊用法(详见书上)

        3)掌握whom, which与介词的用法

Units8-12

一、  volunteer one’s time to do sth. 自愿花费时间做某事

二、  make a plan to do sth. = plan to do sth.计划或某事

三、  take after = be similar to 和….相似

四、  repair = fix up修理

五、  thank you (thanks) for doing sth.

六、  lke表举例时“像….” 其后如果跟动词必须用 doing

七、  be(get) used to doing sth 习惯于做某事

used to do sth. 过去常常做某事

be used to do sth. = be used for doing sth. (某物)被用于做某事

八、  辨析 bring , take , carry, fetch

bring 拿来                           take  带走

carry 携带,搭乘,运载,抬           fetch 取回

九、  adj/adv + enough 足够…..              enough + n      足够的….

十、  divide …..into…..把….划分成…

十一、the popularity of basketball has risen worldwide.

      popularity人口 + V三单

十二、the number of (…..的数量)  +V三单

      a number of (大量的)  + V复数

十三、dream of doing sth. 梦想做某事

十四、happen = take place  (没有被动语态)

十五、辨析

      forget to do sth. 忘记去做某事                         forget doing sth  忘记做过某事

      leave (left) sth. somewhere 把(某物)忘在某地           lose – lost--lost 丢失

十六、到达

      arrive at / in +地点               get to +地点        reach +地点        注明:如果后面不跟地点只能用arrive

十七、on time准时        in time按时

十八、wake up  醒来  wake – woke – waken     hang out 闲逛

十九、wait (for) sb. to do sth.  等待某人做某事

二十、invite sb. to do sth. 邀请某人做某事      invite sb. to somewhere 邀请某人去某地

二十一、辨析 embarrassed / embarrassing

二十二、show up 出现、出席    stay up 熬夜

二十三、dress up 装扮、打扮                 dress sb. (in) 给(某人)穿衣服

        wear 穿着、戴着(表状态)          put on 穿上 (表动作)

二十四、hundreds of数百的、thousands of数千的、

millions of数百万的、billions of数十亿的。

        数词+ hundred / thousand / million / billion 几百、几千、几百万、几十亿

二十五、marry sb 嫁给(某人)     get married 和(某人)结婚

二十六、sell out 卖完  sell – sold – sold

二十七、there be 句型中的be动词用is还是are ,取决于靠近它的主语是单数还是复数。

二十八、问路方式:

1、   Could you tell me (Do you know) how to get to ……?

2、   Could you tell me the way to ….?

3、   Could you tell me where I can (do sth.)..?

4、   Could you tell me where …. is ?

5、   Could you tell me if there is / are ….. around here ?

二十九、be interested in = take an interest in + n / doing

三十、宁愿做某事,而不愿做某事。

1)       prefer to do sth rather than do sth

2)       would rather do sth than do sth

3)       prefer doing to doing sth

注:(rather) than 后面的动词形式与前面的并列成分一致。

三十一、look for寻找       find 找到、发现        find out 查明、弄清楚

三十二、be convenient to do sth. 方便做某事

三十三、have fun = have a good time = enjoy oneself 玩得高兴        have fun doing sth做某事很愉快

三十四、a good place to do sth. 做某事的好地方

三十五、dress up as ….打扮成

三十五、when (一般后跟过去时)            while(一般后跟进行时)

三十六、it’s necessary to do sth做某事很有必要

三十七、borrow …..from….  向….借….     lend sth. to sb.  借给某人某物.        keep 借并保存一定时间. 常与一段时间连用。

I’ve kept this book for a week. 我已经借了这本书一周了

三十八、wonder = want to know 想知道

三十九、trouble 打扰、麻烦

        have trouble / difficult / problem / a hard time  + doing sth. 做某事很困难

四十、 in order to ……为了…..  In order not to be late, he rush to the bus stop.

四十一、be supposed to do sth.(不)应该做某事..

四十二、drop by 顺便拜访

四十三、after all 毕竟    捡起,挑选pick up   指着point at     make a noise 制造噪音     沿着….一直走….walk down …

四十四、make的用法

        make + adj

        make sb do sth 

(hear, watch, see, have 等用法相同) (但变为被动语态时,其后加 to

 My mother made me to work 5 hours.      I was made to work 5 hours.

四十五、make mistake 犯错

四十六、辨析 except / besides

        except (除…..之外) Everyone went to the beach except Jim.

        besides (除….之外,包括在内) I have a lot of friends besides Mary.

四十七、find(think) it + adj. + to do sth. 发现、认为做某事是……

四十八、不再…..        not ……any more ( any longer)  = no more ( no longer)

语法专项

动词的分类和时态

一、  动词短语。

(1)         动词+介词

look at, listen to, look after, look for, wait for, take after, depend on, think of, hand in,

hear from, hear of, study for 等,此类动词后的宾语无论是名词还是代词,都只能放在介词后。

Look at the blackboard.               Look after it carefully.

(2)         动词+副词

turn off, turn on, turn up, turn down, pick up, set up, cheer up, clean up, work out, put up, fix up, cut up, give out, give up, give away, put away, think over, put off, use up, hand out, mix up, look up, eat up等.此类动词后的宾语是名词时,放在副词前后都可,若是代词, 必须放在中间.

He turn off the light when he left.            He picked it up and give it to me.

⑶其他动词短语:

 get along with, take pride in, pay attention to, make good use of, be proud of, keep away from, be busy with, be made of, be good at, be interested in, come up with, be satisfied with

三、非延续动词。

buy, lend, borrow, die, begin, stop, finish, arrive, join, go, come等。不能与表示一段时间的状语连用,要用延续动词替换。(详见  现在完成时)

四、系动词。

   be, become, get, look, seem, turn, sound, smell, taste, feel, keep

五、助动词。

be, have, has, do, does, did, will, shall (详见  P54 )

Ⅰ、动词的五种基本形式(详见  P55 )

Ⅱ、用法:

⑴       一般现在时。

1、   肯定句: 主语+V原+其他。I usually go to school by bus.         主语(三单)+V三单   She plays tennis once a week.

疑问句:Do+主语+V原……?         Does+主语(三单)+ V原……?

否定句:主语+don’t + V原.           主语(三单)+ doesn’t + V原.

2、   用法:

⑴表示经常或习惯性发生的动作。

⑵表示客观真理、事实。  The earth goes around the sun.

⑶在时间、条件等状语从句中,用一般现在时表示将来。( if, as soon as, until, when)

  If it rains tomorrow, we won’t go to the park.  When I grow up, I’ll go to Paris.

3、   时间状语:

Always, often, sometimes, usually, on Sunday, on Monday afternoon, every day/month/year/week, in the morning, once a year, twice a day, three times a day等

⑵一般过去时。

1、   ⑴表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态。  I got up late this morning.

⑵表示过去的习惯或经常发生的动作。

When I was in the countryside. I often swam in the river.  I used to go fishing.

2、结构:

   肯定句:主语+ V过去+其他。   We visited the museum last week.

                                 My friend Tom went to the beach yesterday.

   疑问句:Did+主语+ V原……?  Did you go shopping with him?     Did she cook dinner for her family?

 否定句:主语+didn’t+ V原……。 He didn’t go to see the movie last Sunday.

3、动词的规则变化。

4、时间状语:

  Yesterday, last night/week/year/month, last Sunday, in 1995, the other day, just now, ago等

⑶一般将来时。

1、   用法。

①      表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态。其构成:will + V原

 肯定句:They will leave for Shanghai next week.

 否定句:We won’t visit him tomorrow.

 疑问句:Will you go to Shanghai in two weeks?

(注:当主语为I 或 we时,问句中可用 shall)    where shall we meet tomorrow?

②      be going to+ V原 表示计划、打算做某事。

---what are you going to do next Sunday?   ---I am going to listen to music.

Look at the clouds, there is going to rain.

③      现在进行时be +Ving  有时可以表示将来。

常用这种结构的动词:go, come, leave, stay, start, arrive      We’re leaving for London.

(4)现在进行时

 1、构成:

肯定句:主语 + is / am / are +ving

疑问句:Is /Am /Are + 主语 +ving

否定句:主语 + isn’t / am not / aren’t + ving

2、   用法:

①      表示正在进行的动作  I’m reading book now.

②      表示现阶段正在进行的动作或状态。 They are studying hard this term.

3、   时间状语

now , these days, 当句中有look, listen , can’t you see, can you see时

                           Listen! He is singing.

(5) 现在完成时

1、already / yet 已经

already一般用于肯定,与完成时态和进行时连用,也可以用于疑问句,表惊讶。

I have already finished my work.

   yet一般用于否定或疑问句。 Has she gone to school yet ?     His parents haven’t been to Paris yet.

2、   现在完成时表示从过去开始延续到现在的动作,常与for, since连用.

现在完成时表示动作才刚结束,但影响还在。

I have lost my pen .(结果是我的笔丢失了,我现在没有钢笔了)

--have you found your watch yet ?    --No , I haven’t found it yet.

I have lived here for 10 years . 我已经在这里住了10年(可能还会继续住下去)

3、结构:

   肯定句:主语+ have / has +V过分

   疑问句:Have /Has + 主语+ V过分

   否定句:主语+ haven’t / hasn’t + V过分

4、时间状语  yet, already, recently , just, once, never, ever, so far, these days.

             since +过去的时间点/过去时态    for + 一段时间    in the last(past) + 一段时间

5、延续和非延续动词。

   在现在完成时中,有些动词不能与一段时间搭配,所以在与for , since 引导的肯定句搭配时,要用其他动词替代:

   buy---have    borrow---keep   die---be dead   go/leave/move---be away (from)

   begin/start---be on    fall asleep---be asleep   finish/end---be over  

   join---be in/ be a +名词   come---be here   open---be open   close---be closed

I’ve left the school for 3 years. (  )  I’ve been away from the school for 3 years. (  )

6、辨析 have / has been to ,  have /has gone to ,   have has been in

have/ has been to …  曾经去过某地,现在已经回来

I have been to Paris 3 times.

have/has gone to…   去了某地,现在还没回来,可能还在路上。

--where is your father ?  --- he has gone to Shanghai.

have/has been in…   已经在某地(呆了多久)

 My family have been in Chengdu for 20 years

(6) 过去进行时

1、结构 was / were + doing

2、用法

 ① 表示过去某段时间正在进行的动作

      ---what were you doing at 9:30 last night?      --- I was watching TV.

3、when一般接一般过去时  I was doing my homework when my father came home.

   while一般接进行时      While my mother was cleaning, I went out.     He was playing basketball while she was reading books.

(7)过去完成时

1、过去完成时表示过去某个时间以前好或过去某个动作以前,已经发生的动作或状态。(过去的过去)

When I got to school, I realized I had left my backpack at hone.      By the time she got to class, the teacher had started teaching.

2、结构:had + V过分

3、时间状语 :by the time + 表示过去的时间状语从句,主句用过去完成时。

   By the time we arrived at the shop, the bus had left.

动词、短语辨析

1、dress , put on , wear

   dress sb / oneself (in) 给某人穿衣。 She dressed her baby in a red skirt.

   dress up 打扮、装扮  The girl dressed herself up ant went to the party.

   Put on (动作)穿上 It’s cold outside , put on your coat.

   wear = be in 穿着、戴着  Lily wears T-shirt every day. = Lily is in T-shirt every day.

2、arrive , get , reach

arrive + at / in +地点    When did you arrive in Chengdu ?

get to +地点          How do you get to school ?

reach +地点           When she reached the supermarket , her mother is shopping.

3、die , dead , death , dying

   die(动词)死亡→(过去时)died     His friend died 3 years ago.

   dead(die的过去分词,用于完成时,与for, since搭配)

        His friend has been dead for 3 years.

   death(名词)死亡   His death is the loss(损失) of China.

   dying  垂死的       The poor man is dying.

4、   lose, forget, leave

lose 丢失、失去

forget 忘记  forget to do sth  /  forget doing sth

leave + 地点 “把某物落在某地)

5、   以must开头的疑问句,肯定回答用 must, 否定回答用 needn’t

---Must I finish the work today ?     ---No, you needn’t.

---May I come in?  ---No, you musn’t.

非谓语动词

一、  动词不定式

1、   结构 to + V原  / not to +V原

2、   用法

① 作主语 + V三单    To speak English is not easy for us.

② 作表语            My job is to clean the room.

③ 作宾语            He likes to play soccer.

④ 作宾语补足语      She asked me not to speak loudly.

⑤ 作定语            Have you got anything to eat ?

⑥ 作状语            I went to the library to study English.(表目的)

注: 作宾语的不定式如果是不及物动词,且与所修饰的词之间有动宾关系,要在不定式后加介词。

I don’t have enough time to study for the test , so I have something to worry about.

I need a room to live in

不定式作宾语:want, refuse, wish, need, choose, hope, agree, would like, offer, expect, decide, ask + to do sth

I hope to find a good job after graduating from school.

不定式作宾补:tell, ask, want, allow, get, would like, encourage + sb (not) to do sth

My mother asks me not to play computer games before finishing homework.

不带to 的不定式: why not + do …?  Had better (not) do sth.   

Would better (not) do…     Could/Would/Will you (not) do…..?

     另外,有些感官动词和使役动词也不带t

            Hear, see, watch, notice, feel, let, make, have + sb (not) do ….但变为被动时,要加 to  

            The boss made them work the whole day.

            They were made to work the whole day. (被动)

感叹句

(一)what引导

      1、what + a/an + adj +可数名词单数+主语+谓语    What a beautiful girl she is !

      2、what + adj +可数名词复数、不可数名词+主语+谓语    What sweet water it is !

(二)how引导

      How +adj / adv +主语+谓语    How interesting the film is !

(三)如何判断用what还是how

凡是有a / an开头,多用what; 凡是adj直接加名词的,多用what;其他一般用how.

状语从句

一、  时间状语从句

when, while , as, before, after, since, until, as soon as.

(1)     当主语是一般将来时或祈使句或有情态动词时,从句用一般现在时,“主将从现”

I’ll ring you as soon as I get to school. 我一到学校就打电话给你。

(2)     肯定句:until  = till 直到     I’ll wait for you until you come back.

否定句:until = before   not …. until 直到….才……    I didn’t go to bed until I finished my homework.。

二、条件状语从句

if , as long as(只要) , unless(除非)

主将从现    I’ll visit you if it doesn’t rain tomorrow.       Use your head, and you’ll find a way.

            Unless you work hard, you’ll get a good job.    If the traffic lights are green, you can cross the street.

宾语从句

一、宾语从句的语态。

    宾语从句要用陈述语态

--- Do you know ______ for Shanghai last night?   A. what time he leaves       B. what time did he leave     C. what time he left.

二、主句与从句时态一致。

1、如果主句用现在的某个时态,宾语从句视实际情况而定。

   I wonder if you can help me. 我想知道你是否能帮我。

2、主过--- 从过 

   He told me that he would take part in English club. 他告诉我他将参加英语俱乐部。

   He asked me if I used his bike. 他问我是否我用过他的自行车。

3、   如果是客观事实,宾语从句用一般现在时。      Jim told me that the earth is round.    Jim告诉我地球是圆的。

三、连接词

1、that可省略,that作主语时不能省。

2、what , which , who, whose, whom     He asked me whose the book is.

3、when, how, where, why       Could you tell me where the restaurant is.

                             Do you know how to get to the bank?

4、   if / whether 是否

以下情况只能用 whether :

与or not 连用          Can you tell me whether we go or not.

作介词后的宾语从句    I’m worried about whether we should study each other,

跟不定式to do          Have you decided whether to go with us.

定语从句的用法

定语从句中只能使用that的情况    

1.当先行词为anything,everything,nothing等不定代词时,只能使用“that”。

例:Is there anything that I can do for you?(我能给你做点什么吗?)

2.当先行词为all,any,much,many词时,只能使用“that”。

例:Tom told her mother all that had happened.(汤姆把事情的全部情况告诉了他的妈妈。)

3.当先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰时,只能使用“that”。

例:This is the most wonderful time that I have ever had. (这是我度过的最美好的时光。)

4.当先行词是序数词修饰时,只能使用“that”。例:

He was the first person that passed the exam.他是第一个通过考试的人。

  5.先行词被the only,the very,the same,the last修饰时,只能使用“that”。例:This will be the last chance that he can get.(这将会是他得到的唯一机会。) He is the only person that can help you out.(他是唯一能帮你的人。)

6.先行词里同时含有人或物时,只能使用“that”。

例:They talked of things and persons that they remembered in the school.(他们谈论他们记得的有关学校的事和人。)

7.当主句是以who,which开头的特殊疑问句或先行词是who时,只能使用“that”。

例:Which is the book that he bought from the library yesterday?(哪本是你们昨天从图书馆借的书?)

注意:●指物时,在介词后只能用which,而不能用that.

●定词从句修饰代表地点、时间的先行词时,要看代表先行词的关系词在定语从句中是否作谓语动词的宾语.如作动词的宾语,就要用关系代词that 或which引导定语从句.反之,要用关系副词 where(表地点)或 when(表时间),在定语从句中作状语.

如:Mary would never forget the evening when she lost the book.     I’ve been to the city that you visited last week.

被动语态注意事项

●构成

被动语态表明一个被动性动作,它由“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。

一般现在时 am/is/are + pp.

一般过去时 was /were + pp.

一般将来时 will be + pp.       am/is/are going to be+ pp.

情态动词 may/ can/ must/ should be + pp.

被动语态否定式为be not + pp.,

情态动词被动语态否定式为情态动词+not be + pp..

●主动语态变为被动语态时,通常将主动语态中的宾语变为被动语态的主语;主动语态的主语变为由介词by引导的宾语;谓语动词变为被动语态“be +过去分词”形式,例如:

   Everyone likes the interesting film. (主动语态) → The interesting film is liked by everyone. (被动语态)

   They used knives to cut things. (主动语态) → Knives are used to cut things. (被动语态)

●某些动词可以跟双宾语如give、pass、bring、write;buy、make等,在变为被动语态时如果直接宾语变为被动语态中的主语,则间接宾语通常由介词to、for引出。例如:

My sister gave me a nice watch for my birthday. →A nice watch was given to me by my sister for my birthday.我过生日时收到了姐姐的一块手表。

They have bought us many books. → Many books have been bought for us by them. 很多书都是由他们给我们买的。

●某些动词make、hear、see、watch等在主动语态中,其宾语补足语要求用不带to的不定式。但在变为被动语态时通常省略的不定式符号to必须恢复。如:He made us clean the classroom after school. →We were made to clean the classroom after school. 我们被迫在放学后打扫教室。 

 I saw him come into the room. → He was seen to come into the room. 人们看见他进了屋子。

●在主动语态中如果谓语动词是含有介词或副词的短语动词,变为被动语态时不能丢掉该介词或副词。如:

    They must take good care of the children. → The children must be taken good care of. 孩子们必须小心照看。

●英语中某些动词如sell、lock、draw、smell、touch、feel、sounds、write、be worth doing、sth. needs doing等可以用主动表示被动意义。如:This kind of books sells well. 这种书畅销。  The door won’t lock. 门锁不上。

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